LitePub Overview

LitePub is a family of similar server-to-server protocols which each constitute a profile of ActivityPub. They have been stripped down and are intended to be lightweight with easily understood security properties.

Information about differences between LitePub and ActivityPub can be found in the LitePub for ActivityPub implementors document.


In LitePub, operations are modelled as interactions between Actors. An actor could be, amongst other things, an user account, a bot, or a service. LitePub implementations process messages which are delivered to inboxes and apply side effects based on the interpretation of those messages. The exact behavior an implementation may take when presented with a message is implementation-defined.

Message delivery

Messages are addressed to either actors or collection. Every actor MUST have an inbox property and MAY have a sharedInbox property. If an actor has a sharedInbox property, then an implementation MAY choose to deliver the message to the sharedInbox instead of directly to the actor's inbox.

Handling of collections SHOULD be treated as aliases for a group of known actors. Implementations MUST NOT attempt delivery directly to a collection.

Delivered messages MUST be signed and then delivered to inboxes. The receiving server MUST authenticate the message following the rules below in the Message authentication section.

Message authentication

LitePub messages are authenticated using a construction based on HTTP Signatures. The date and digest headers MUST be signed, additional headers MAY be signed.

The digest header

LitePub messages MUST have a digest header of the following construction:

At a minimum, the SHA2-256 hash method MUST be used, using the identifier SHA-256. Implementations MAY send other digests by separating them with a space and using the same construction.

To generate the digest, the binary message body is hashed using the selected hash method. Implementations MUST verify that the signed digest header matches the received message body.

An example digest header:

Digest: SHA-256=X48E9qOokqqrvdts8nOJRJN3OWDUoyWxBf7kbu9DBPE=

An example digest header with multiple digests:

Digest: SHA-256=X48E9qOokqqrvdts8nOJRJN3OWDUoyWxBf7kbu9DBPE=

Message transience

This section is non-normative.

An important property of LitePub verses ActivityPub is that messages are intended to be transient, when message handling is properly implemented in this way, significant security advantages over the original ActivityPub approach are achieved, such as message deniability.

In respect to the LitePub specification process, this means that care has been taken to minimize the leakage of both message contents and data which can be used to forensically authenticate those messages.

It should be considered a significant violation of this specification to handle messages in a way that could result in the leakage of message contents or signature data to third parties. However, strict adherence to the LitePub core protocol should result in an implementation which handles messages in a secure manner.

Inclusion of objects by reference

This section is non-normative.

Another important property of LitePub verses ActivityPub is that message data integrity is controlled by the server which publishes the original message. Accordingly, all message which reference another message MUST do so using the message's id. The id of the message may be treated as a reference, as in JSON-LD.

When a message is deleted, the URI associated with the message id MUST NOT respond and SHOULD respond with an HTTP 404 or equivalent error code. This does two things: